Beginner - advanced
Adapted from a lesson by Christopher Muscato
Latin music is becoming more and more popular in the United States and it's really not hard to see or hear why...
Fruor musica latinae. Dives et lenimur et pulchra est. Bunom est vivere in mundo quod habet bonum musica.
What? I'm talking about music in Latin. Isn't that what this lesson is about? Latin music, right? Oh, you mean the music of Latin America, or the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. Yeah, I guess that makes more sense.
Latin music has roots in Southern Europe, Africa, and the indigenous cultures of Latin America, so it's a pretty cool synthesis of world music. It is motivated by emotion and passion, rhythm and movement, so get up on your feet because you can't take Latin music sitting down. As they say in Latin America, ¡Baila!
One of the most famous aspects of Latin music is the rhythm, which is largely inspired by traditional African beats that were developed in the Caribbean. Although there are many variants on this rhythm, the most fundamental form is called the clave, which is simply the basic Latin rhythm. This basic beat is what holds all of the complex rhythmic patterns of Latin music in place.
There are two main patterns. The first is called the son clave, originally named after the Cuban musical genre of son Cubano. Basically, the son clave features alternating patterns of threes and twos. This pattern gives the music a pulsating beat filled with the building and release of musical tension. The first three beats are called a tresillo, or triplet in English, which means three notes evenly spaced across two beats. This means that they are slightly off the beat, which is part of what gives it that driving momentum.
The other main clave pattern is the rumba clave, which flips the son clave around and has two alternating patterns of twos and threes. The two paired beats come first with a triplet coming next. This mixes up the beat, but the effect is still largely the same, creating music with a heavy, driving rhythm that is as much the focus of the song as the actual melody, if not more.
Latin music is characterized first and foremost by the rhythm. This is not some background or subtle beat; the rhythm is in many ways the real focus of the music. But, it's not the only part of the music; melodies and harmonies are both important parts of this music as well.
Latin music developed as a mixture of musical traditions from around the world and this means that it is actually pretty open when it comes to instruments. There are few restrictions as far as what is and is not allowed. Latin music has always embraced a certain freedom of experimentation.
Drums, of course, are important, as are the sticks often used to beat the clave rhythm, which, incidentally, are also called claves. The percussion section may also include shakers, like maracas or tambourines. Again, percussion is pretty important to Latin music. Brass instruments, such as trumpets and tubas, are popular for the melodies and harmonies, as are guitars, which can play both melodies and rhythms.
But, of course, we can't talk about Latin music without also talking about dance. Dance is integral to Latin music and really the driving motivation behind it. Latin America is full of dances, from the rumba to salsa to cha-cha to samba. Each of these are distinct but generally emphasise a rhythmic strutting with the hips in a pattern of advancing and retreating. Two steps forward, two steps backwards, that sort of idea.
While these dances do have formal rules and patterns, again the actual spirit of Latin music is not so strict. Dancing is simply a form of self-expression and to the people of Latin America, the rules of dance do not always matter so much. What matters is that you are able to express yourself through movement and as long as your music has a strong Latin beat, you can dance to it, whether you know the steps or not.
Latin music is the music of the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Caribbean, Central and South America. This music has roots in Southern Europe, Africa, and indigenous cultures of the Americas, making it a diverse synthesis of musical traditions with a taste for freedom and experimentation.
The main emphasis of Latin music is on the rhythm, which is strong and central to the composition of the music. The most typical rhythmic pattern is called the clave, and there are actually two types - the son clave and rumba clave. Each use alternating patterns of paired and tripled notes to create a driving, pulsating rhythm that is great for dancing.
Dance is one of the major priorities of Latin music and while there are several important styles of dance (they are all generally characterised by rhythmic strutting from the hips), what really matters is the opportunity for self-expression through movement. So, that's Latin music. It's something that you have to feel in order to truly understand, though, so get out there and, ¡Baila!