FOLK MUSIC...A History
Folk is a wonderful, joyful genre of music and there is so much to delve into, from the very early origins of the genre to the more contemporary version we know know. There is a rich culture of folk music around the world, and the history of each country and how it has contributed to this wonderful genre is infinite but today we will be focussing on folk music in the West...
Lesson adapted from Chris Chouiniere
Explore the development of folk music, from the word ''volk'' to Bob Dylan and beyond! We'll learn what folk was, what folk became, and what folk means today. Finally, we'll learn about who the important folks are in folk music.
Where Folk Came From...
Folk music takes its name from the German word volk, which essentially means 'the people.'
At one point "folk music" came to be used derisively to refer to the music of an uncultured class of people! This made the divide between folk music and the traditional European concert music, reinforcing the class conflict between the "folk" and the elite...
What Is Folk?
As the term "folk" simply means "the people" you can understand how folk music came from more than one place and from a VERY long time ago!
The contemporary folk music (after what is known as the 20th century folk revival, when folk music became very popular once again) genre used traditional, acoustic instruments and commonly to share spoke about the plight of the common people (folk), including depression, oppression, and war.
As the genre developed from traditional folk music, the music came to be known more for its storytelling, regardless of instrumentation and musicality.
Traditional folk music, a very long time ago, was commonly associated with folklore and was passed from person to person, town to town, even country to country orally, as this was generally the only way they could share music!
There is a strong nationalist (the country it comes from) component to the music, as it is largely associated with the national culture, rather than the artistic elite.
Typical instruments includes acoustic guitars, banjo, fiddle, and accordion, accompanying a voice. More exotic (though equally common) instruments may include the dulcimer (a simple stringed lap instrument), the zither (another stringed lap instrument), and various percussive instruments.
Development of CONTEMPORARY Folk Music
In the USA, some of the earliest contemporary folk musicians include Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Jimmie Rogers, and Burl Ives. Of the four, Woody Guthrie in the 1930s is often seen as the first significant contributor to the genre. His earliest works focused on the plight of the working class in the Dust Bowl Midwest, and he and his music were largely associated with the far-left political spectrum, such as socialists and communists.
One of the most famous early folk musicians, who was well known up until his death in 2014, was Pete Seeger. Much like Woody Guthrie, his music largely focused on the plight of protest music (music that stands up against something), aligning himself with the political left to the degree of being blacklisted as a communist!
Seeger was frequently associated with the Civil Rights movement as well, with his version of 'We Shall Overcome' becoming an anthem of the movement. Seeger was well known for involving the crowd (the folk) in his performances, frequently turning concerts into sing-alongs.
The Mid 1960s and the 1970s (USA)
Have you heard of Bob Dylan?
Dylan's was a very important figure in contemporary folk music as he managed to move from a niche to the mainstream audience.
His work was progressive, much like Seeger and Guthrie, to whom he was most frequently compared, yet he was not as controversial or even feared (by the establishment anyways) like they were.
In 1965, Dylan broke from tradition and began using electric instruments. This was an important transition into the use of electro-acoustic instruments, which though not entirely accepted at the time, continues today!
The '60s had a number of musicians who, although not quite as famous as Dylan, made a big difference to the genre. Joan Baez was Dylan's close friend and may have been one of the reasons he was so well known. She used to introduce him as the opening act at her shows. Donovan, the first of the popular folk musicians from England, came to be known as the London Dylan. Judy Collins was a powerful protest singer, though perhaps because of this she did not achieve the same commercial success. Her rendition of Seeger's 'Turn Turn Turn' is well regarded, and she followed Dylan into electrics with her recordings of Beatles songs. Finally, there's Peter, Paul and Mary, whose renditions of Dylan's works, including 'Blowin' in the Wind' and 'Don't Think Twice, It's All Right' helped bring further recognition for Dylan and brought the genre further into the mainstream. And the list goes on!
By the '70s, folk music continued as a popular genre with both acoustic and electric acts, the most influential of which were Simon & Garfunkel, the Mamas & the Papas, Arlo Guthrie, and John Denver, though in reality each had taken the genre in entirely different directions.
The Mamas & the Papas were far more influenced by pop music than most of the acts before them, John Denver's music had a distinctly country sound, while Arlo Guthrie continued the traditional folk sound his father started in the early '30s...
The 1980s and Beyond: Subgenres
Subgenres are when a new genre gets made based on different musical elements, or the merging of multiple genres.
Of the multiple ways in which folk music developed, the most commercially successful has been the Punk Folk genre, with the Pogues representing the earliest version of this. They managed to combine folk musical elements such as storytelling and folk instruments with punk music ethos, including distorted guitars and fast rhythms, the Pogues achieved commercial success in the early '80s.
Other subgenres popped up too - the Dropkick Murphys went from Folk to Folk Punk to Celtic Punk!
Folk Metal, where elements of folklore and traditional instruments are mixed with the metal genre; Viking Metal, which uses Viking mythology; and to some extent Skiffle, which is seen as a merger of the popular musics of America into a stylistically UK genre from which the Beatles came. Wow - what a jigsaw puzzle of musical evolution!
So to quickly sum it up...
Folk music is the music of the common people, as opposed to the European classical concert music. Its name is derived from the German volk, which means 'people.' Folk music began as a traditional genre, associated with the folklore of the region. By the 1930s, the genre had changed, and of early contemporary folk musicians, Woody Guthrie is widely seen as the first significant contributor to the genre. Early folk musicians were primarily associated with the political left, like communists and socialists, and their music typically dealt with social issues, including war, depression, and oppression. These themes stayed at the centre of the music through the development of the genre, including through the '60s with Dylan, and beyond with the Pogues. Folk music developed into multiple subgenres, blending forms of music together into new hybrid genres, including Folk Metal, Folk Punk, Viking Metal, and Skiffle to name a few...
Phew - I feel like we have hardly scratched the surface of this inspiring genre but I hope this has got your cogs turning and has got you excited about jumping further in and learning more - let us know the musicians you fall in love with!