100 Years of Jazz: Ragtime
Blog by Louise Balkwill
In our last blog, we looked at Congo Square and the origins of Jazz music. Now we visit the 1890’s, when Ragtime appeared in its earliest form.
Unlike the earlier music of Congo Square that was passed down aurally from generation to generation, Ragtime music gained popularity through being passed around as sheet music, and is thought to be the first written ‘pop’ music – Blues, in contrast, was thought by the higher classes to be a lower class rural music (although very important in the history of jazz – we will have a listen to some blues in the next blog.)
Named ‘Ragtime’ because of its ragged, syncopated rhythms, the music became very popular for dances and was written mainly by middle class African American musicians who had gained influence from minstrelsy and classical music, as well as the improvised and traditional music of Congo Square. The music was accompanied by a dance called the ‘Cakewalk’ – this made way for endless variations that the kids of the time loved to get their feet into. Ragtime music was also a very popular choice to accompany silent films in its later years. You might well have heard of “The Entertainer” (or even played it for one of your grade exams); this is a Ragtime piece written by Scott Joplin, the celebrated “King of Ragtime” in 1902, 115 years ago!
Ragtime started off as a music witten only for solo piano, but in the early 1900’s, orchestral and ensemble arrangements became popular. The violin then became the main leading instrument in these ragtime ensembles with this popular line-up:
- Melody: First Violin (or Cornet with second Cornet harmonies)
- Beats 2 and 4: Second Violin (prior to the banjo)
- Beats 1 and 3: Bass Viol
- *Obbligato: Piccolo or Clarinet
- Bassline: Trombone
- Percussion: Strict time drumming
*Obbligato, (Italian: “obligatory”), in music, essential but subordinate instrumental part. For example, in an 18th-century aria with trumpet obbligato, the trumpet part, although serving as accompaniment to the voice, may be as brilliant in its writing as that of the voice itself.
Fancy having a go at learning some Ragtime Piano?
Check out this video with on-screen sheet music of the first known rag, written by the first published African American composer, Tom Turpin!
(If you liked that, check out YouTube user RagtimeDorianHenry’s other ragtime videos!)
In the next blog, we’ll be looking at early blues and how it has played a massive part in the evolution of the jazz tradition!